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Treatment of periodontitis

Treatment of periodontitis (PERIODONTOLOGY) is a field of dentistry that deals with the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease as well as oral mucosa diseases. The periodontium is a set of tissues that surround and immobilize the tooth. In addition, it is designed to protect teeth against the ingress of infection from an infected gingival pocket or root canal.  Periodontosis is the colloquial name for periodontitis. It is a chronic disease in which bacteria attack our gums, which can lead to serious changes in the teeth. This is a disease in which periodontal tissues are infected, which in turn leads to inflammation. As a result of inflammation, the tissues that support the teeth are destroyed. The result is a weakening of the tooth, and in the worst case - its loss.

What causes periodontitis?

  • improper care of oral hygiene
  • sediment, tartar
  • poorly selected diet (deficiency of needed vitamins and minerals)
  • smoking
  • alcohol abuse
  • occlusion defects leading to periodontal changes

Other comorbidities have a great impact on the development of periodontitis, e.g.

  • diabetes
  • metabolic disorders
  • cardiovascular problems
  • reduced body immunity

Periodontosis - step by step treatment:

It should be remembered that the onset of periodontitis is usually asymptomatic.

However, it is important to pay attention to such symptoms as: sensitivity of the teeth to extreme temperatures, unpleasant mouth odor, change in taste - unpleasant aftertaste, slight pain and bleeding gums - especially when brushing, inflammation, redness of the gums, lowering of the gums, excessive plaque buildup, increased tooth mobility. In order to treat periodontitis, instructions on proper oral hygiene and removal of irritating factors are advisable. In the early stages of periodontitis, systematic tartar removal is recommended (as recommended by your doctor or hygienist), as well as the use of pastes and liquids for oral hygiene for sensitive teeth - individually selected by a doctor or hygienist. Sometimes it is necessary to introduce pharmacological treatment (antibiotic therapy). If periodontitis is highly advanced and the bones significantly damaged, immediate surgical intervention is needed. Procedures performed to treat advanced periodontitis include curettage, gingivectomy, and more advanced are lobe surgery. In addition to treatments on the roots and pockets of the gums, surgical corrections of the gums, bones and preparations are also used, which allow the regeneration of lost bone and periodontal tissues.

curettage

curettage is a procedure that involves very thorough removal of tartar from periodontal pockets, which accumulates in pockets due to inaccurate oral hygiene. The buildup of stone penetrates into the gap between the gum and the tooth, which leads to an increase in the gap, which in turn leads to inflammation. Curettage can be done in two ways - closed or open, depending on how deep the pockets are in which tartar is deposited. Closed curettage is performed when the pockets are not very deep (up to approx. 5 mm). The subgingival deposits are then removed without the need to expose the root surgically. Open curettage requires surgical exposure of the root. Both procedures, both closed and open curettage, are performed under local anesthesia.

Gingivectomy

Gingivectomy, also called gingivoplasty or gum surgery is a procedure performed when the gums are not symmetrical, overlap the teeth or have an inappropriate shape. This is removing excess gums or giving them the desired shape. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia. Lobe operations are performed when periodontitis is significantly advanced and inflammatory tissue needs to be removed. This procedure involves surgical exposure of the gums around the inflammatory lesion - to expose the roots and bones of the alveolar process. This will facilitate access to the inflammatory focus. If during the procedure it turns out that the bone defect is significant, there is the possibility of controlled bone regeneration, i.e. supplementing it with appropriate bone substitute materials. Flap procedures are performed under local anesthesia, and after their operation the surgical site is provided with sutures.

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